... Bibliografía ...



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Estadios quirúrgicos

  1. Cheng  EY and Thompson R.: New Developments in the staging and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.    JBJS. Vol 81-A. No 6. June 1999. p 882.

  2. Finn HA; Simon MA; Martin WB; Darakjian H.: Scintigraphy with gallium-67 citrate in staging of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity. J-Bone-Joint-Surg-Am. 1987 Jul; 69(6): 886-91. We performed a retrospective study of sixty patients who had a activity of the gallium was present in forty-one of forty-eight sites in citrate should be employed routinely for staging of soft-tissue sarcomas.

  3. Enneking   WF.: Current concepts review: The surgical staging of musculoskeletal staging of musculoskeletal sarcoma.  JBJS Vol 62-A. 1980. p 1027-1030.

  4. Enneking WF et al.: A system for the surgical staging of musculoskeletal sarcoma.   CORR. Vol 153. 1980. p 106-120.

  5. Mankin HJ; Connor JF; Schiller AL; Perlmutter N; Alho A; McGuire M; Grading of bone tumors by analysis of nuclear DNA content using flow cytometry. J-Bone-Joint-Surg-Am. 1985 Mar; 67(3): 404-13. We studied 217 consecutive tumors of bone by flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA concentration after staining with propidium iodide. A diagnosis and histological grade (benign, low-grade, or high-grade sarcoma) were assigned to each tumor on the basis of staging data (with the exception of the forty-six giant-cell tumors, which, although indistinguishable histologically, were divided according to the flow cytometric pattern into two distinct groups), and we quantitatively studied the flow cytometry data to assess the percentages of cells in diploidy, tetraploidy, or aneuploidy. When compared, the mean values for the flow cytometric data for the three grades showed significant differences. Criteria were established for the three classes of tumors: for benign tumors, less than 11 per cent tetraploidy and no aneuploidy;

  6. PeabodyaT.D. Simon  M. A.:   Principles of staging of soft-tissue sarcomas . University of Chicago Medical Center, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery Clin-Orthop. 1993 Apr. (289). P 19-31. The TNM staging system is a modus for diagnosis and treatment in which T is the extent of the tumor involvement, N is lymph node involvement, and M is the metastases; this system is supplemented with a histologic malignancy grade. Staging systems identify specific prognostic factors with which to predict clinical outcome. Staging systems are useful for assigning treatment priorities, determining the role of adjuvant therapies, and evaluating clinical investigations. Unfortunately, no universally accepted staging system for soft-tissue sarcomas exists. This is related to the relatively low incidence of sarcomas, the unique and unpredictable behavior of sarcomas, significant disagreement regarding histogenesis and grading, and lack of consensus regarding the value of various prognostic factors. In adults, the two most commonly used staging systems are those developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and by Enneking. In children, the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study and the International Union Against Cancer have described the systems most commonly used. These systems for soft-tissue sarcomas rely on an ability to accurately determine both the local and distant extent of disease. Advances in the field of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have made this possible. It is likely that a staging system based upon a more sophisticated understanding of the basic biology of sarcomas will become available. Author-abstract.

  7. Saddegh M-K. Lindholm J. Lundberg A. Nilsonne U. Kreicbergs A.: Staging of soft-tissue sarcomas. Prognostic analysis of clinical and pathological features. Dept of Orthopaedics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. J-Bone-Joint-Surg-[Br]. 1992 Jul. 74(4). P 495-500. In a retrospective study of all 137 patients with soft-tissue sarcoma treated by surgery between 1972 and 1984, the clinical course was related to several host and tumour features, including the Surgical Staging System of Enneking, Spanier and Goodman (1980). Only patients free from metastasis with untreated primary lesions on admission were included. According to the Surgical Staging System, nine tumours were IA, 18 IB, 38 IIA and 72 IIB. Only 12 patients underwent amputation; 125 were treated by local surgery. The mean follow-up time was ten years (minimum five). For the whole series the probability of seven-year survival was 0.65; 42 patients (31%) died from tumour disease. All these had metastases and 24 also had local recurrence. The local recurrence rate was 36%. Multivariate analysis identified large tumour size and high histological grade as significant risk factors for metastatic disease and tumour-related death. Sex, age, tumour site, surgical margin and local recurrence showed no correlation with survival. The prognostic contribution of compartmentality was virtually nil. Histological grade combined with tumour size was found to give better prognostic information than that obtained by the Surgical Staging System. Author-abstract

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Metástasis óseas

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Bibliografía Tumores de partes blandas

Bibliografía Tumores óseos